How Viruses useful in daily life?

 How Viruses useful in daily life?

Virus: You've heard badly; This is good

"Words, viruses, connotates morbidity and mortality, but the bad reputation is not universally feasible," said Marilyn Roossinck, PhD, Professor of Plants and Environmental and Biology Microbiology at Pennsylvania State University, University Park. "Viruses, like bacteria, can be a useful microbial that is important in human health and agriculture," he said. The current review of the literature on useful viruses emerged before the April 24 print in the Journal of Virology, published by the American Society for Microbiology.

In sharp contrast with gastrointestinal pressure which causes humans, Murine (mouse infection) Norovirus plays a role in the development of the mouse intestine and its immune system, and can really replace the beneficial effects of certain intestinal bacteria when this has been destroyed by antibiotics. Normal intestinal bacteria, healthy help prevent infection by bacteria that cause gastrointestinal disease, but excessive antibiotic intake can kill normal intestinal flora, and make someone susceptible to gastrointestinal disease. However, mouse norovirus infections really recover the normal function of the immune system lymphocyte and normal morphology of the intestine, said Roossinck.


The mammal virus can also provide immunity to bacterial pathogens. Gamma-herpesvirus increases the resilience of mice against Listeria monocytogenes, human gastrointestinal pathogens are important, and for Yersinia pestis, or known as an outbreak. "Humans are often infected with their own gamma-herpes viruses, and can be imagined that this can provide similar benefits," Roossinck said.


Herpesvirus latent also armed natural killer cells, an important component of the immune system, which killed both mammalian tumor cells, and cells infected with the pathogenic virus.


Gastrointestinal results of luxury mammals with viruses. So far, a little known about how these viruses affected their host, but their number and diversity showed that they had important functions, said Roossinck. For example, the GI virus that infects bacteria - known as fage - can modulate the expression of the bacterial gene involved in the host digestion.


Recent research shows that bacteriophage attaches to many mucous membranes Metazoa (Class "Animalia," which includes everything from worms to wombat). And mucous membrane, Roossink shows, is the entry point for many bacterial pathogens, shows that they provide the first line of defense against invasion bacteria.


Viruses also provide various services for plants. Some plants grow in hot land that surround the geyser and "artist 'PaintPots" from Yellowstone National Park. One of these plants, which is a type of tropical panic grass, is symbiosis that includes mushrooms that colonize plants, and viruses that infect the fungus. These three symbiotic members are needed to survive on boiling land on more than 122 degrees Fahrenheit.


In the laboratory, Roossinck has created symbiosis between fungi infected with the same virus and plant. This has allowed every factory that has been tested for the group to survive at this increased soil temperature, including tomatoes, he said, noting that he had pushed soil temperature to 140 degrees without killing plants.


Investigators have also found that certain viruses can make some plants tolerant of drought, and at least one example of cold tolerance given viruses has been found - discoveries that can be useful to expand the plants range.


Plants are often infected with "persistent viruses" derived from generation to generation, maybe more than thousands of years, with viruses transmitted to almost 100 percent of the descendants of their plants, but it has never been proven to be transmitted from one plant. to others. "One such virus, white Crytpic Clover virus, suppresses the formation of nitrogen installation nodules when adequate nitrogen is present on the ground, saving plants from producing expensive organs when not needed "said Roossinck.


Another useful virus is an old-fashioned retrovirus of making a permanent home in the genome, or who left the genes in it, said Roossinck. "Mammalian genes for synchritin, are important in the formation of placenta, is a retroviral ENV gene entered on several different occasions," Roossinck wrote.


"The virus is beyond doubts about the coolest things I've ever met," said Roossinck. "They did truly extraordinary things with a little genetic information. I was always a little disturbed on the bad rap they got, so it was very interesting for me to find a good one."