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Civil Engineering

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Civil Engineering

 Civil engineering is a branch of professional engineering associated with the design, construction and maintenance of bridge , roads, canal , dams and buildings etc. It is defined as 'civil engineering' (civil engineering) to distinguish it from military engineering.

Engineering has been a part of his life ever since humans came into existence. The beginning of civil engineering correctly can be traced back to the time when 4000 and 2000 BC. In ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia humans began to abandon the lives of Banjaras. As a result, he felt the need for a house. During this time, transportation became a pioneer, leading to the development of wheels and sailing. The construction of pyramids in Egypt (around 2700–2500 BC) can be considered the first example of large structure construction.

Other ancient historical civil engineering constructions include the Parthenon (447–438 BC) built by Ictinos in ancient Greece, the Appian Way (c. 312 BC) built by Roman engineers, and General Meng at the behest of Emperor Shih Huang Ti of China. The Great Wall of Chinachamil is made by Teen (c.220 BC). The Romans built urban structures throughout their empire, including - canals, chambers, ports etc.

Before the modern period there was no clear distinction between civil engineering and architecture. There was only a geographical difference between the words engineer and architect in which the same person was called an engineer at some places and the architect at some places, often the same person was sometimes called an engineer and sometimes an architect. In the 18th century, the term began to be used to distinguish military engineering from civil engineering.

John Smyton, who built the Eddystone Lighthouse, described himself as the first civil engineer. I 1771, Smitten and some of his co-workers formed the Smitten Society of Civil Engineers, a group of pioneers of this business who informally had dinner together. Although there is some evidence which suggests that these meetings were held for consideration of technical matters, but usually this group was like a social group.

The Institute of Civil Engineers was established in London in 1818, and in 1820 the eminent engineer Thomas Telford became its first president. The institution received a royal manifesto in the year 1828 giving formal recognition to civil engineering. Its manifesto defined civil engineering as Norwich University was the first private school to teach civil engineering in the United States, founded in 1819 by Captain Alden Partridge. Th first degree in civil engineering was awarded in the United States by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1835. Suc a degree was awarded to a woman in 1905 by Cornell University to Nora Stainton Blach.

Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles and its history is also associated with the entire history of development in the understanding of physics and mathematics. Because civil engineering is a wide-ranging business that includes many different and specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge in many fields such as structures, materials science, geography, soil and hydrology, environment, mechanics and more.

Throughout ancient and medieval history, much of the architecture was designed and built by artisans such as stone carvers and carpenters, whose role later extended to the head builder. Knowledge existed between a particular union of society and rarely any development. Was able to take place. Structures, roads and basic facilities built at that time were repetitive and the increase in scale was incremental.

One of the earliest examples of the application of physical and mathematical problems in civil engineering is the work done by Archimedes in the third century BC, including the theory of Archimedes, which tells us the origins of the process of floating or leaping as well as practical. The solution also states that such as Archimedes Screw. The Indian mathematician, Brahmagupta, used mathematics based on Hindu-Arabic numerals in the 7th century AD to compute Ghadit (cube).

Civil engineer-

Sub branch-
In general, civil engineering is a complete interface with the larger world of man-made fixed projects. Common Civil Engineers work closely with surveyors and design, gradation, drainage, water supply, drainage, power supply support and communication supplies to senior civil engineers in gradation of assigned projects on site, group and terrain. And he helps them by dividing the land.
The general engineer spends much of his time traveling to project sites, preparing the community consensus and planning for construction work. Common civil engineering is also called site engineering, which is a branch of civil engineering whose main focus is converting a portion of land from one use to another.

Coastal engineering-

Coastal engineering is concerned with the management of coastal areas. In some areas, sea defense and coastal protection mean protection from floods and erosion respectively. Although the term coastal defense is more traditional, now-a-days coastal management has become more popular as the area has now expanded and includes techniques that allow land erosion.

Construction engineering-

Construction engineering involves the planning and implementation of designs from transportation, site development, water, environment, infrastructure and geotechnical engineers. Because construction companies are more at risk of trade than other civil engineering companies, Many construction engineers play a role that is closer to the role of business people in nature: such as preparing and inspecting contracts, evaluating subsidiaries, and monitoring the value of essential supplies.

Earthquake engineering-

Through earthquake engineering, various structures are given the ability to bear the brunt of dangerous earthquakes in the specific places where they are.
Earthquake engineering is a sub-branch of the broader category of structural engineering. 

Understand the structure of the structure and the impact on the unstable ground structures and each other of the land.

Early detection of earthquake
Designing, constructing and maintaining such a structure which is according to the construction code and meets the expectation when an earthquake occurs.

An earthquake engineering structure does not necessarily mean a very strong or expensive structure such as the Castillo Pyramid of El Chichen Itza shown above.

Now the most powerful and low cost tool in earthquake engineering is base isolation which is related to techniques related to the control of passive structural vibration.
Environmental engineering-

Environmental engineering is required to maintain chemical, biological and / or thermal expenditure, purification of water and air, and cleaning of contaminated sites due to prior waste or accidental contamination. Topics covered in environmental engineering include pollutant transport, water purification, spent water treatment, air pollution, solid waste treatment and hazardous expense management, pollution reduction, green engineering and industrial ecology can all include environmental engineers.

Environmental engineering also collects information about the impact of the proposed works on the environment, as well as evaluating the impact of the proposed works on the environment to help the society and policy makers in decision making.

However, hygiene engineering does not traditionally involve much of the management of hazardous wastes and environmental treatment that is involved in environmental engineering. 
Geotechnical engineering-

Geotechnical civil engineering is the part of the field of civil engineering which is related to stone and soil which is aided by the civil engineering system. Geotechnical engineers use the knowledge related to geology to safely and economically design structures, foundations, retaining walls and the like and help build these structures through physics testing, mechanics and hydraulics We do.

Groundwater and waste disposal have provided a new topic for environmental studies called geo-environmental engineering. Biology and chemistry are important in this subject.

Some of the strange problems related to geotechnical engineering are the result of variability and soil properties. Boundary conditions are well defined in other branches of engineering. But it can be impossible to define these rules with soil.

Due to the limited inspection and variability of soil it is very difficult to understand the material properties and nature of soil. Contrasts of well-defined material properties of concrete and steel are used in other fields of civil engineering. The defining mechanics are much more complex due to pressure dependent substances such as volume changes, pressure-drag relations and strength.
Hydraulic engineering-

 As a branch it covers hydrology, environmental science, meteorology, geology, conservation and resource management. This field of civil engineering is associated with both the prediction and management of the quality and quantity of underground (aquifers) and above-ground (lakes, rivers and streams) resources.

Water resources engineers make a model of a very small part of the land and analyze it so that they can estimate it by the flow of water. However, the actual design of the facility can also be assigned to another engineer. Hydraulic or hydraulic engineering is concerned with the flow and carrying of fluids.

It is mainly related to water. This area of ​​civil engineering includes the design of pipelines, water distribution systems, drainage (including bridges, dams, waterways, culverts, embankments, and canals). Hydraulic or hydraulic engineers design these features other than fluid pressure, fluid fluid pressure, fluid static, fluid dynamics and hydraulics.
Material engineering-

Another aspect of civil engineering is matter or metallurgy. Materials or metal engineering Chinese-like materials such as concrete, concrete composite asphalt, metals such as aluminum and steel, and polymers such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) are attracted to the increased strength of the metal.
Structural engineering-

Structural engineering is concerned with structural design and structural analysis of buildings, bridges, towers, flyovers, tunnels. At the same time, it is related to structures and other structures built in the seaside areas. It identifies the forces exerted on the structure and the pressures and stresses caused by these forces within that structure and then constructs the structure so that it can successfully lift and bear those forces. Other dead force, living force, dynamic (wheel) force, wind force, earthquake force, may be equal to the force generated by temperature change. Structural engineers should construct the structures in such a way that the experimenter does any harm to the experimenter and successfully completes the work for which it is constructed. Due to the nature of certain loading conditions, sub-branches within structural engineering develop, including air engineering and earthquake engineering.

The byproduct of the design includes the strength, stiffness and stability of the structure, when carried for loads that may be static, such as furniture or self-weight, or dynamic, such as wind, earthquake, congestion or vehicles. Load, or temp such as temp, build load or impact. Other considerations include cost, ability to manufacture, safety, aesthetics and stability.

Surveying is the process in which the surveyor measures certain dimensions that usually occur on the surface of the earth. Survey instruments, such as squares and theodolite angular divergence, horizontal, vertical and slope distances are used for accurate measurements. 
With computerization, electronic distance measurement (EDM), total station, GPS surveying and laser scanning supplementation has (to a large extent replaced it) supplemented traditional optical devices. This information is very important in transforming the data of the Earth's surface into a graphical model in the form of a map. After that this information is also given to civil engineers, contractors and even brokers so that they can use it to design, construct and trade respectively. The elements of a building or structure need to be at the right size and location with respect to each other and the correct position of boundaries and adjacent structures.

Although surveying is a separate business with different qualifications and different licensing arrangements. Civil engineers are trained in surveying and mapping, basic and geographic information systems. Surveyors determine the location of railwayways, tramway tracks, highways, roads, pipelines, and lanes before they are built, as well as some other infrastructure, such as ports.
Earth surveying-

In the United States, the Land Survey of Britain, Canada and most Commonwealth countries is considered a distinct occupation. Land conservators are not considered engineers and have their own business organization and their own licensing requirements.

The services of a licensed land are generally required for boundary surveying (the boundaries of a parcel are its legal details. Usually licensed land surveyors are required for boundary surveying and subdivision plans (to create a boundary clause) (Using its constitutional brochure) (a plot or map is based on a survey of a section of land, which consists of boundary lines within a larger section to show new boundary lines and roads).
Construction surveying-

The construction surveyor is usually done by specialized technicians. Unlike land surveyors, its outcome plan does not have constitutional facility. The construction surveyor performs the following tasks:

Inspecting the current status of the future work site, including topography, existing buildings and infrastructure and even underground infrastructure whenever possible.

Construction survey ("making" or "setting"): taking risks and guiding the construction of new structures, such as for the subsequent construction of a road or building, with reference points and markers.

Thoroughly examine the location of the structure during construction;

Construction survey: Conducting a survey construction at the end of the project to confirm that the work was fully authorized and finished as per specification plans
Transportation engineering-

Transport engineering should be the driver of mass and goods for the people of an efficient, safe and vibrant society. Transport engineering is related to these things.

 This includes transportation design, transportation planning, traffic engineering, Some aspects of urban engineering, line theory, [[stone or brick floor engineering | pavement engineering,]] include areas such as intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and transportation management.
Urban engineering-

Urban engineering is concerned with urban infrastructure. This includes mentioning, designing, manufacturing and maintenance. This includes road, footpath, water supply network, drain, management and execution of street light municipal solid waste, storage for many metals for public works and management (salt, sand, etc.), public parks and maintenance of cycle paths .

In the case of underground utility networks, it may also connect the civilian portion of the local distribution network of electricity and telecommunications services (vessels and utilization rooms). It also includes garbage collection and bus service network optimization. Some of these topics merge with some other civil engineering features, although municipal engineering focuses on these infrastructure networks and services, as they are often built sequentially and run by the same municipal administration.